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Jul   2018

What is Water-borne Disease & Its Effect

Posted By :  Admin  

Sickness or illness which occurs due to the drinking of contaminated water is considered a water-borne disease. The drinking water quality of India is very poor because it contains various types of contamination or pollutant. Water contains dissolved solids such as organic & inorganic compounds and biological impurities such as bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi, algae and etc which is very much harmful to the human health. In the whole world, every year more than 3 million people lose their life due to the various water borne diseases. Both developing and developed country are suffering from the death occur by the various types of water borne diseases. Among all the countries India and China are facing more issues. Every day more than 600 people of India lose their life due to drinking of contaminated water whereas more than 90% of water bodies are polluted in China.


Types of Water-borne Diseases:

There are various types of water related diseases some of them are discussed below

  1. Leptospirosis
  2. Amebiasis
  3. Diarrhea
  4. Typhoid
  5. Cholera



Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection which is caused by Leptospira interrogans which is a gram-negative bacteria. This bacteria mainly infects the animals such as rodents, dogs, horse, and etc. These animals contaminate the water bodies by urination and use of that contaminated water cause disease in the human body. The main symptoms of this disease are high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and etc.



Amoebiasis is a parasitic disease which is caused by the Protozoa known as Entamoeba histolytic. This protozoan infects the intestine which leads to the loose motion, abdominal cramp, stomach pain, & etc.



A condition when you experience watery stool more than 3 times in a day is called as Diarrhoea. There is three form of Diarrhoea such as acute, chronic, and persistent Diarrhoea. If you experience watery stool less than two weeks it means that you are facing acute Diarrhoea, if it is for more than two weeks then it is called as persistent Diarrhoea, and if you feel watery stool more than 4 weeks then it is called as chronic Diarrhoea. The main cause of Diarrhoea is drinking water which is contaminated with the microbes such as bacteria, virus, fungi, and etc. These microbes mainly affect the intestine and cause infection in it which leads to the stomach pain, abdominal cramp, vomiting, change in color of stool, & etc. A Health Ministry report says that every day more than 300 children lose their life due to Diarrhoea.



This is the most dangerous and fatal water-borne disease. A WHO i.e. World Health Organization report says that more than 2 million cases of typhoid are reported worldwide in which about 2 lakhs people lose their lives every year. This disease is caused by a bacteria known as Salmonella typhi. The main function of this disease is Headache, muscle pain, high fever, and etc.



This form of the water-borne disease is very common among all the water-borne diseases which occur due to the drinking of contaminated water. This disease is caused by a bacterium called as Vibrio cholera. This bacteria is mainly present in the water and food which is infected by the contaminated person. Once the bacteria enters into the human body it starts to release a toxic material which finally causes heavy losses of fluids from the body.


Symptoms & Source of Water-borne Diseases:

Water-borne diseases show various symptoms such as skin, ear, respiratory, or eye problems but the most common symptoms are Diarrhea and vomiting. Water-borne diseases can be spread through various sources. Some common source is given below

  • Drinking of contaminated water
  • Eating uncovered water
  • It can also be spread by insects


Cause of Water-borne Diseases:

As we have discussed above that water contains microbes as well as dissolved solids which all are harmful to the human health. Some of the microbial cause of water-borne diseases are discussed below



As we all know that water support life and it is the home of many bacteria such as E.coli. It is considered most of the potential disease-causing bacteria because it produces a toxin which affects the human intestine & leads to anemia.



The virus is a connective link between the living & non-living organism because it is inactive until it reaches to the host cell. Once a virus finds the host cell it becomes active & affects the host cell. The most common disease caused by the virus is Hepatitis A & E.



Protozoa are commonly found microbes in the water & it is higher in size as compared to the bacteria and virus.


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