Water is a fundamental need of all the organisms it means that without water there is no life on the earth. One-third of the earth's surface is surrounded by water but most of the water is in the form of seawater or ice which can't be used for drinking purposes. Out of the total water on the earth, only 2-3% of water is in the form of freshwater.
These days human activity leads to water pollution. Water pollution is used to define the change in the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the water and the pollutant which is responsible for water pollution is called the water pollutant.
Water purification is a process that is used to remove the impurities present in the water. Water contains several impurities such as physical, chemical, and biological contaminants. Hence the water purification process removes undesirable contaminants, biological impurities, suspended solids, and gases from the water. Along with these contaminations, the water purification process is also used to eliminates
- Parasites such Cryptosporidium or Giardia
- Unpleasant odour
The main aim of the water purification process is to bring out water which is fits for specific purposes such as drinking, medical, pharmaceutical, chemical, and industrial purposes. Purification process reduces the concentration of the suspended particles, bacteria, algae, viruses, & fungi along with the range of the dissolved and particulate matter.
The standard of drinking water quality is created by governments or by international standards. According to the world health organization (WHO) report 2007, approximately 1 billion people are not able to use pure and healthy water for drinking purposes.
Every year more than 4 billion case registers for diarrhea out of that approximately 90% of cases are due to the drinking of impure water. The diarrheal disease causes approximately 1.8 million dies every year. WHO says that this ratio can be decreased by up to 95% simply by getting access to pure and healthy water for drinking purposes and modification in the environment.
Reducing death which occurs due to the drinking of impure and contaminated water is the main aim of our country (India). The water purification process can also be achieved at home by using chlorination, filters, solar disinfection, and storing in a safe container.
Complete Overview About Water Purification Process
The water purification process is based on these below-listed methods
- Preliminary treatment
- Primary treatment: It involves the removal of physical contamination. Mainly done by screening, Multi-Media Filtration, etc.
- Secondary treatment: it involves the removal of suspended solids by using a biological process.
- Tertiary or Advance Treatment: The chemical process does it for the final treatments.
1. Physical Waste Water Treatment
A wastewater treatment which uses physical methods toeliminate the contamination present in the water is called physical wastewatertreatment. Physical wastewater treatment consists of
- Screening- used as pre-treatment methods to remove more considerable suspended material
- Multi-media Filtration (MMF)- use to filter suspended solids
- Membrane Filtration- use barrier (micro-filtration, ultra-filtration) or semi-permeable membrane (nano or reverse osmosis) membrane to remove suspended solids and total solids
What Is Screening?
Screening is one of the essential steps used for the wastewater treatment process. In this process, removal of objects like rags, paper, plastics, and metal to prevent damage and clogging of downstream equipment, piping, and appurtenances. The screening process can be done two ways
1. Coarse Screening
It is responsible for the removal of large solids, rags, and debris from the wastewater. In coarse screening, the opening is about 6mm (0.25) or larger. Coarse screening can be done by
- Trash Rack
It is designed to prevent logs, timbers, stumps, and other large debris from entering into the primary water purification process. The typical opening of trash rack is 38-150 mm
- Manually Cleaned Bar Screen
It is designed to remove larger solids, rags, and debris. The opening size is about 30-50 mm. In a manually cleaned bar screen, the bar is set at 30-45 degrees from vertical to facilitate the cleaning process. This is mainly used in the older or smaller water treatment process or bypass channels.
- Mechanically Cleaned Bar Screen
Like manually cleaned bar screen, mechanically cleaned bar screen is also used to remove larger size solids, rags, and debris. But the opening size of the automatically cleaned bar screen is about 6-38 mm and the bar is set at 0 to 30 degrees from vertical. Automatically cleaned bar screen is famous among other screens as it possesses a large number of advantages.
2. Fine Screening
It is mainly used to removes those materials that lead to the operation and maintenance issues in the downstream process, mostly in those systems which lack primary treatments. The opening size for fine screening is 1.5 to 6 mm. Very fine screens with the opening of 0.2 to 1.5 mm are placed after coarse or fine screens may lower the suspended solid concentration to a level near the concentration achieved by primary clarification. Fine Screening is mainly done by following these process such as:
- Fixed Screens
It is suitable when only a small amount of materials need to be removed. It is mostly placed after the bar screen. The opening of the fixed screens ranges from 1-25 mm.
- Band Or Belt Screens
Band Fixed screens are made up of flexible woven wire mesh. This screen is usually used for a river supply.
- Disc Screens
These kinds of fixed screens are mainly used in a circular direction. The diameter of these screens ranges from 2-5mm at the speed of about 0.05m/s.
- Drum Screens
Drum screens are made up of a hollow drum. In this, the wastewater is passed through the inside/hollow portion of the drum. The solid remains inside of the drum, and the screening is removed through the gravitational action.
What Is Multi-Media Filtration
It is a modern physical wastewater treatment method whichuses at least three layers of filtration media such as anthracite, sand andgarnet, to eliminate the water contamination. In this wastewater treatmentprocess particles having molecular size 10-15 micron in size get removed. Butmulti-media filtration (MMF) does not eliminate the microbial contaminationlike bacteria, viruses, fungi and other.
What Is Membrane Filtration?
The physical wastewatertreatment process, which eliminates water contamination with the help of themembrane, is called as membrane filtration. There are four types of membranefiltration
It is a type of physicalwastewater treatment where water is allowed to pass through a special poursized membrane to eliminate microbial contamination present in the water.Microfiltration technology is used in conjunction with various other separationprocesses to bring pure and healthy water. The membrane used in theMicrofiltration’s pore size is about 0.01 to 10 micron.
In this physicalwastewater treatment process contamination present in water are used toeliminate by using a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane used inultrafiltration have a pour size of about 0.005 to 0.001 micron, and it is usedto remove suspended particles, bacteria and specific virus. But this technology is mainly used in combination with other techniques for effective treatment.
Nanofiltration is similar to the ultrafiltration, but the pore size of the membrane used in Nanofiltration technology is very fine. The pore size of the Nanofiltrationmembrane is 0.005 to 0.001 micron. This filtration technology eliminates divalent ions such as calcium; thus, sometimes it is referred to as softening membrane.
- Reverse Osmosis
It is one of the most commonly used physical wastewater treatment. Like other membrane technology reverse osmosis technology also uses a semi-permeable membrane to eliminate the water impurities present in water. The pore size of the membrane used in this technology is about 0.005 to 0.0001 micron. RO water purifier can remove dissolved ions, bacteria, viruses, and other contamination.
2. Chemical Wastewater treatment
A wastewater treatment system which uses chemicals to treat the contamination present in the water is called chemical wastewater treatment. Chemical wastewater treatment is also known as tertiary or final wastewater treatment. There are various different process for chemical wastewater treatment some of them are
A water purification system uses a neutralization process to treat acidic water. The neutralization process can be done for various purposes:
- It is used for the neutralization of multiple types of effluent before they get discharged into the atmosphere.
- pH correction of the water occurs before the biological or physical and chemical treatment stage.
- Acidification upstream from a desalination membrane, industrial circuit vaccination
In a water purification system, a neutralization filter is used to treat highly acidic water. It is a simple treatment device that increases the pH of the water by adding neutralization material.
Redox reduction is essential for the treatment of the water. Oxidation with ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used to eliminate chlorinated hydrocarbon and pesticides from the water. This process is mainly used to reduce antibiotics, cytostatic drugs, hormones, and other anthropogenic trace substances.
It can be achieved by either adding a disinfectant chemical or by removing the harmful micro-organism. Disinfection can be completed by various process
- Chlorine Gas
Chlorination by sodium hypochlorite solution, i.e., NaOCl, Solid calcium hypochlorite, i.e., Ca (OCl)2
It is a chemical water purification process, which is now one of the advanced methods; thus, it is mainly present in modern and advanced water purification system. This process is based on the infusion of the ozone in the water. Ozone is a gas which is consist of 3 molecules of oxygen, which is one of the potent oxidants. Ozonation in water purification system in use to eliminate organic compound and microbes related water contamination. The ozone water purification system in use has great application, but it is mostly used to remove organic and microbial contamination.
- Ultraviolet rays
The use of UV rays plays a vital role in the water purification system. UV rays have high penetration capacity, which kills or suspend the growth of the microbes present in drinking water. A water purification system containing ultra-violate rays is suitable for eliminating different types of biological contamination. There are various kinds of water purification system which includes UV rays to treat water contamination.
- Ion exchanger
In this process, a charged ion in a solution is exchanged with the similarly charged ion, which is electrostatically attached to an immobile solid particle. The best example of ion exchange is a water softener system.
3. Biological Waste Water Treatment
The biological treatment used it wastewater treatment has a single motive to eliminate human and industrial waste without damaging the environment. Various kinds of processes can achieve it. Some of them are
- Aerobic Treatment
In this process, organic waste is converted into biogas containing a high concentration of methane and carbon dioxide. It mostly used in the industrial process as it is an energy-efficient process and covert a large amount of organic matter at a moderate temperature. This process occurs in the presence of oxygen.
- Anaerobic Treatment
It is a slow process that may take 3 months to complete. During this process, the unpleasant smell may appear. The anaerobic bacteria convert organic waste into biogas, which contains a high concentration of methane and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen.
7 Methods Of Water Purification Process
The water purification process or access to pure and healthy water for drinking purposes can protect millions of lives every year. This can be achieved by the following methods which are given below-
Boiling water is one of the cheapest and best ways to purify water. Water is one of the natural solvents which can dissolve almost everything. This property of water makes its natural habitats for various kinds of pathogens which can’t be seen by the naked eye. The boiling of water removes these kinds of pathogenic germs and bacteria.
2. Coagulation & flocculation
This is the first step of the water purification in which some chemicals are added into the water for the removal of the suspended particle from the water. These added particles can be organic such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae and any other natural organic compound and inorganic in nature such as clay and silt.
The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate or iron salt such as iron chloride induces several chemical and physical interactions among the particles. The negative charge on the particles gets neutralized by the inorganic coagulants and starts forming a metal hydroxide of aluminum ions and iron.
These metal hydroxide i.e. Aluminum and iron hydroxide precipitate combine together and form a large compound under a natural process called Brownian motion or under induced mixing called flocculation. These metal hydroxides start absorbing the suspended particle in the water and induce removal of those suspended particles by a subsequent process of sedimentation & filtration.
Organic coagulants are a man-made organic polymer. This polymer contains the high molecular size and when it added into the water it starts absorbing the suspended particle present in the water and forms flock.
Sedimentation is a physical process that removes suspended particles from the water using gravity. The particle which settles out from the water is called sediment or sludge. The thick layer of sediment is known as consolidation.
Water containing flocculation basin enters into the sedimentation basin, The sedimentation basin is a large tank that has low water velocities which allow the suspended particle to settle at the bottom. The flocculation basin and sedimentation basin are closed to each other that is why this process does not allow the floc to break up.
Before the coagulation process in the water treatment process, sedimentation could be used to decrease the suspended particle present in the water. But after the coagulation process sedimentation is used to reduce the solid particle from the water so that the filtration process can function effectively.
Any mechanical, physical or biological operation which is used to separate solids from the fluids (i.e. Liquid or gas) by adding a medium which only allows the fluids to pass through it but doesn't allow the solids to pass. The fluids which pass through it is called the filtrate. There are various methods of filtration such as hot filter, cold filter, and vacuum filter and all these filters aim to separate the substance.
Filtration is one of the active water purification processes among all the methods used for purification. It is mainly based on physical and chemical processes. Filtration ensures that your drinking water is safe for consumption purposes because it removes all kinds of water contamination from the water.
When you compare the water filtration process with reverse osmosis (RO) that filtration is most effective as it removes much smaller molecules like chlorine and pesticides. Distillation is not only effective but also economical as it doesn’t require more energy as compared to reverse osmosis. During the filtration process, little loss of water takes place.
The process of cleaning something to destroy microbes is regarded as disinfection. It could be done by removing harmful micro-organisms or by adding disinfectant chemicals. Disinfection can be achieved by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone, and ultra-violate (UV) rays.
Chlorine and its compounds such as chlorine dioxide and chloramine is a strong oxidant which efficiently kills the micro-organism whereas ozone is unstable molecules which produce natation oxygen which acts as a powerful oxidizing agent. Ultra-violate rays are very effective at reducing contamination.
The process of separation of any substance from a liquid mixture through selective boiling and condensation. It could be done to achieve complete or partial separation which results in a higher concentration of the selective compound.
Distillation is one of the water purification methods which utilize heat to collect pure water in the form of vapor. According to the scientific fact, distillation is one of the best water purification methods because the boiling point of water is less as compared to the other water pollutant and disease-causing agent.
In the distillation process to achieve water purification, water is subjected to heat until it reaches its boiling point. After that, water is allowed to vaporize and directed into the condenser to cool. After cooling vapors reverse into water that is clean and pure. Another substance that has a higher boiling point remains in the container.
This method of water purification has its advantage and disadvantages. The advantage of distillation is that it affects water purification methods in terms of eliminating bacteria, germs, salts, and other heavy metals like leads, Arsenic. The notable disadvantage of distillation is that it is a slow process and requires a heat source for the water purification process. This process has one significant disadvantage that it is only effective for the smaller quantity not for the large scale.
Chlorine is one of the powerful water purification methods which kills germs, parasites, and other disease-causing agents present in your regularly used water. Chlorine is one of the cost-effective water purification methods among all the know water purification methods. It is mostly used in municipal water to deliver pure and safe water for home consumption.
Additional methods for water purification Process
1. Granulated activated carbon
It is a form of activated carbon which has more surface area, more surface area allow it to absorb many toxic compounds.
2. Reverse osmosis
In this technology, water is allowed to pass through a semi-permeable membrane under mechanical pressure. Researches say that reverse osmosis (RO) is the widely used technology for water purification. The application of RO technology is the RO water purifier.
3. Gas hydrated crystals centrifuged methods
This method uses low molecular weight gas or carbon dioxide which is mixed with the contaminated water at low temperatures and high pressure.
4. In-situ chemical oxidation
It is an advanced form of oxidation which is achieved by inducing the effective oxidizer agent into the contamination medium to destroy the impurities.
This technology use micro-organism to remove waste products such as alkenes & perchlorates from the contaminated water.
The water purification process is used to reduce the contamination present in the water. As we know water is a universal solvent and it can dissolve almost everything in it. Due to this property of water, it becomes the natural habitats for several disease-causing pathogens or agents. These pathogens can be hazardous in nature thus before drinking water you should purify it. The water purification process is used to eliminates all kinds of contamination present in water. Different types of water purification processes are used to eliminates different kinds of contamination present in water.
Water Purification System And Its Various Type
A device that is used to purify water is called a water purification system. Various kinds of water purification systems are available in the market, such as water purifiers, water softener, and others. Previously boiling of water was the most trustable water purification method. But, as these days, the water impurities are getting rigid, an advanced water purification system replaces boiling of water.
With the regular enhancement in the technology, the water purification system is getting updated, which ensures you purest drinking water all the time you urge to drink water. Now it is available in various sizes and capacities, which makes it suitable for multiple sectors like domestic, commercial, and industrial.
Types of Water Purification System
Here we have listed two different types of water purification system which are
1. Water purifier
A water purifier is one the best and trusted water purification system which eliminates all kinds of impurities present in raw water. As we all know, water is one of the universal solvents due to which water becomes home of several contaminants such as microbes and heavy metals. A water purifier is based on various kinds of advanced technology like reverse osmosis (RO), Ultra-Violate rays (UV-rays), and Ultra-Filtration (UF) and many others.
Types Of Water Purifier
There are various kinds of water purification systems in the Indian market. All of them are designed in such a way that it can eliminate all types of contamination present in water. Here we have listed some of the top and widely used water purification techniques such as
- Reverse Osmosis (RO)
It is also known as RO. Reverse osmosis is the opposite of pure osmosis. In this technology, water is used to pass through a semi-permeable membrane. The semi-permeable membrane has several tiny pores that eliminate water contamination based on the molecular size of the contamination. Although the RO water purifier removes all kinds of contamination present in water, it is suitable for removing the high TDS concentration present in water.
- Ultra-Violate Rays (UV)
Several water purifier manufacturer uses UV rays. The UV rays present in the water purification system ensure that no microbial contamination will remain in the water. The UV rays kill to suspend the growth of the microbes present in water. But UV rays don’t eliminate other kinds of contamination present in water like a suspended particle.
- Ultra-Filtration (UF)
Ultrafiltration is one of the water purification methods which uses membrane. But this technology only comes in a combination of RO and UV water purification technology. The UF water purifier is mainly used to protect the RO and UV membrane by removing larger molecules present in water.
2. Water Softener
It is a type of water purification system which is used to treat hard water. The high concentration of Calcium and Magnesium makes water hard in nature, which is not suitable for your health, especially skin health. A water softener replaces the Calcium and Magnesium ion by Sodium ion and makes water soft.
Some Frequently Asked Question Regarding Water Purification System
Water purification is one of the trusted methods to eliminate all kinds of contamination present in the water. Below we have listed frequently asked question regarding water purification.
1. What Are The Four Methods To Purify Water?
Water purification is based on the various advance methods to eliminate all the contamination present in the water. The whole water purification process is based on four primary crucial processes which are
In this process, water, some larger molecules like wooden blocks and other heavy metals are removed.
In this process, physical contamination is removed from the water. And this process is mainly done by screening, Multi-media Filtration, etc.
In this process, suspended particular are removed by using the biological process. The biological process of water purification is of two types, such as aerobic and anaerobic.
It is one of the final processes which is done by using chemical treatment.
2. What Are The Methods Of Water Purification?
What purification process is also categories into three main categories, namely physical, chemical, and biological process.
It is used to eliminate different kinds of physical contaminants like wooden block and plastic bottles. The physical process is done by multi-media filtration, screening and others.
A water purification process which uses a chemical to eliminate the contamination present in the water is called a chemical process. In this process, all kinds of contamination like suspended particles and microbial contamination.
Use of bacterial process to eliminate suspended particles present in water. A bacterial process used for water purification process is of two types one is aerobic, and the other is anaerobic.
3. What Are The 5 Stages Of Water Treatment?
The water purification process is one of the best methods to bring pure and healthy water. There are various methods to achieve water purification, but here I have listed a few top-five and best ways to get it done.
It is one of the primitive water purification processes which is used to eliminate all kinds of contamination present in water.
A process which used to separate substance from water by using selective boiling and condensation. The distillation process is used to achieve partial or complete separation of contamination present in water.
Disinfection is a cleaning process which destroys microbes present in water. This process can be done by eliminating harmful bacteria present in water. This process can be achieved by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone, and ultra-violate (UV) rays.
It is one of the potent chemical used to kills germs, parasites, and other disease-causing agents present in your regular used water. It is one of the cost-effective water purification methods to eliminate all the contamination present in water.
Any physical, mechanical, or biological process which is used to eliminate all the contamination present in water is called filtration. This process is one of the best methods to get pure water for drinking as it eradicates all kinds of water contamination.
4. What Chemicals Are Used To Purify Water?
There are various chemical which is used to treat water contamination. Here we have listed few chemicals which are mostly used to treat water contamination
It is one of the chlorine-like chemical, which is one of the standard ways to purify water. Pure chlorine molecules are also used to eliminate water contamination. Still, it can be toxic if it is mishandled than it can be poisonous or concentration of chlorine is high. Both Chlorine and Chloramines work to kills microbes present in the water.
Chlorine dioxide is another chlorine break off, which is used to eliminate the contamination present in the water. But this chemical is not used generally because it produces volatile gas and along with that, it also increases the value of chlorite passed through the recommended levels as recommended by the United States government.
Hydrogen peroxide is another chemical that is used to eliminate the contamination present in the water. Hydrogen peroxide combines with an activator called formic acid and works efficiently in removing harmful protozoans and pathogens. This chemical takes more time than chlorine.
5. Importance Of Water Purification
A water purification system is used to eliminate bacteria, germ, and other microbes, including leads, mercury, etc. from water. Various water purification methods can remove these water contaminants. Thus, if you are willing to drink pure and healthy water, you can use the best water purification.
Along with this, your water purification system also possesses various other benefits. Some of these are
Reduce Chlorine Level
Chlorine is one of the disinfectants which is used to eliminate microbes present in the water. But a higher concentration of Chlorine in water may lead to several kinds of fatal diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, Asthma, and many others. But with the help of the water purification system, a higher concentration of Chlorine can be removed.
Pure and clean water is the need of everyone, and for this, they spend a lot of money, but with the water purification system's help, one can get pure and healthy water at near no cost. In the absence of a water purification system, people buy bottled water for drinking purposes. If you purchase those water that is free from microbial contamination, then it cost higher.
Enhance The Taste Of The Water
Although the water is tasteless, due to contamination in the water, it has some unpleasant smell and taste, which makes drinking water tough. Purifying the water removes the contamination present in water, which eliminates the unpleasant smell and improves the flavor of the drinking water.
With the help of a water purification system, you not only get pure, clean, and healthy but also in less time. Especially when you need pure water at a large quantity. The water purification system is one of the best ways to eliminate germs, and other water contaminants from the water are less time.
Eliminate Microbes Concentration In Water
The presence of microbes in drinking water may cause several health illnesses. Some bacteria can be fatal; thus, it is necessary to get contamination of free water for the drinking. Several water purification methods can eliminate all kinds of microbial contamination present in water. Almost all types of water purification systems can remove 99.99% of the microbial contamination from the water.
Lowers The Change Of Getting Sick
Drinking water is essential for all the living things as it is essential for almost all the body's functions, but due to heavy contamination in the water, the same can be dangerous for our health. Thus it becomes essential to eliminate all the contamination present in water for drinking.
According to the WHO report, every year, more than millions of people lose their life due to drinking contaminated water. Drinking contaminated water leads to several health issues and weakens your immune system so that you become prone to various kinds of diseases. But with the water purification system's help, you can eliminate all types of contamination present in the water.
Improve Your Skin Health
Our skin cells contain around 64 % of water; thus, drinking a sufficient amount of water is essential for our skin health. But for this, you need to consume only pure and healthy water all the time you wish to drink water. Because water is a natural solvent that can dissolve almost everything in it, it harms our skin health. The presence of Chlorine in water can lead to irritation in your skin, which can be harmful to your health. A water purification system can eliminate all kinds of contamination present in the water. Thus make it safe for the human skin. For healthy skin, you also need to use soft water for bathing or washing your hand or face.
Improve Your Digestive System
Constipation is one of the significant issues, and people try everything for this, but constipation can easily be treated by consuming an excessive amount of water regularly. Constipation occurs due to a lack of proper digestion. But drinking contamination-free and pure water improve digestion, which ultimately helps you get rid of constipation.
Improve Your Immune System
The immune system of the body protects you from various kinds of health issues; thus, it is vital to keep your immune system healthy. It is proved that drinking pure and healthy water improves your immune system health, and a healthy immune system avoids several kinds of health issues. Especially child and old age member of your family needs to consume a high concentration of water regularly. As their immune system are not fully functional, thus pure water essential for them.
Say By To Irritating Headache Issues
Our brain cells contain a high concentration of water; thus, in case of less water level in your brain, it leads to a headache. Therefore one should consume 3.5 to 4 liters of water regularly. But only drinking water is not sufficient. You also need to drink pure and healthy water so that your body can get a proper concentration of water in pure and health form.