What Is Water Borne Disease And Its Effect

Sickness or illness, which occurs due to the drinking of contaminated water, is considered as water borne disease. The drinking water quality in India is inferior because it contains various types of contamination or pollutant. Water contains dissolved solids such as organic & inorganic compounds and biological impurities such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, algae, etc. which is very much harmful to human health. In the whole world, every year, more than 3 million people lose their life due to the various water borne diseases.

Both developing and developed countries are suffering from death occurs by the various types of water borne diseases. Among all the nations, India and China are facing more issues. Every day more than 600 people in India lose their life due to drinking contaminated water, whereas more than 90% of water bodies are polluted in China.

Types of Water borne Diseases

There are various types of water borne diseases some of them are discussed below

  • Leptospirosis
  • Amebiasis
  • Diarrhea
  • Typhoid
  • Cholera

1. Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection which is caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is a gram-negative bacteria. This bacteria mainly infects animals such as rodents, dogs, horses, etc. These animals contaminate the water bodies by urination and use of that contaminated water to cause disease in the human body. The main symptoms of this disease are high fever, headache, abdominal pain, etc.

2. Amebiasis

Amoebiasis is a parasitic disease which is caused by the Protozoa known as Entamoeba histolytic. This protozoan infects the intestine, which leads to loose motion, abdominal cramp, stomach pain &, etc.

3. Diarrhea

A condition when you experience watery stool more than 3 times in a day is called as Diarrhoea. There are three forms of Diarrhoea, such as acute, chronic, and persistent Diarrhoea. If you experience watery stool less than two weeks, it means that you are facing acute Diarrhoea, if it is for more than two weeks, then it is called as persistent Diarrhoea, and if you feel watery stool more than 4 weeks, later it is called as chronic Diarrhoea.

The leading cause of Diarrhoea is drinking water, which is contaminated with microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. These microbes mainly affect the intestine and cause infection in it, which leads to stomach pain, abdominal cramp, vomiting, change in color of stool &, etc. A Health Ministry report says that every day more than 300 children lose their life due to Diarrhoea.

4. Typhoid

This is the most dangerous and fatal water-borne disease. A WHO i.e., World Health Organization report, says that more than 2 million cases of typhoid are reported worldwide in which about 2 lakhs people lose their lives every year. This disease is caused by bacteria known as Salmonella typhi. The primary function of this disease is Headache, muscle pain, high fever, etc.

5. Cholera

This form of the water-borne disease is widespread among all the water-borne conditions which occur due to the drinking of contaminated water. This disease is caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholera. This bacteria is mainly present in the water and food which is infected by the infected person. Once the bacteria enter the human body, it starts to release a toxic material, which finally causes massive losses of fluids from the body.

Symptoms & Source of Water borne Diseases

Water borne diseases show various symptoms such as skin, ear, respiratory, or eye problems, but the most common symptoms are diarrhea and vomiting. Water-borne diseases can be spread through multiple sources. Some common source is given below

  1. Drinking of contaminated water
  2. Eating uncovered water
  3.  Insects can also spread water borne disease

Cause of Water borne Diseases

As we have discussed above that water contains microbes as well as dissolved solids, which all are harmful to human health. Some of the microbial cause of water-borne diseases are discussed below

1. Bacteria

As we all know that water support life, and it is the home of many bacteria such as E.coli. It is considered most of the potential disease-causing bacteria because it produces a toxin that affects the human intestine & leads to anemia.

2. Virus

The virus is a connective link between the living & non-living organism because it is inactive until it reaches to the host cell. Once a virus finds the host cell, it becomes active & affects the host cell. The most common disease caused by the virus is Hepatitis A & E.

3. Protozoa

Protozoa are commonly found microbes in the water & it is higher in size as compared to the bacteria and virus.

How To Prevent Water Borne Disease 

The main reason for water borne disease is the drinking of contaminated water. According to several reports, more than 3 million people lose their lives every year. Thus its prevention is necessary. Here are a few methods to prevent waterborne disease, which are:

1. Drink Properly Treated Water

As we have mentioned that drinking contaminated water is the main reason of waterborne illnesses. Thus always ensure to drink pure and healthy water, which is treated adequately by the best water purification system. Being natural solvent water can dissolve almost everything, which makes water unsafe for human use. But water treated by the water purification system doesn’t contain any kinds of water impurities; thus, the chance of getting sick is very less. 

2. Practice Good Personal Hygiene

Frequently and carefully washing hands is essential among all age group people. A parent should ensure that their kids are washing their hand thoroughly. WHO advised washing hands by using shop and water for at least 20 seconds to ensure that you are safe from waterborne disease. 



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